Posts Tagged ‘flood’

How Antecedent Moisture Conditions Impact Flooding

Posted on: August 4th, 2020 by Tim Koch

The amount of pre­cip­i­ta­tion that falls dur­ing a storm obvi­ous­ly has an impact on the flood dynam­ics of rivers and streams. When it rains a lot, rivers and streams can flood dra­mat­i­cal­ly. Flood­ing from Trop­i­cal Storm Irene in 2011 is an all too famil­iar exam­ple.

Flooding in Boiceville as a results of Tropical Storm Irene

Flood­ing in Boiceville as a results of Trop­i­cal Storm Irene

Anoth­er impor­tant but less well known influ­ence on flood­ing is the antecedent mois­ture con­di­tion.

To under­stand what antecedent mois­ture con­di­tion is and how it impacts floods we need to briefly dis­cuss the water bal­ance:

     P = RO + ET + ΔS

where,

     P = pre­cip­i­ta­tion,
     RO = runoff,
     ET = evap­o­tran­spi­ra­tion, and
     ΔS = change in ground­wa­ter or soil stor­age.

This gen­er­al­ized equa­tion is say­ing that all the water that falls as rain either (1) runs off the sur­face and becomes flow in a stream, (2) is evap­o­rat­ed or tran­spired (i.e., used by plants), or (3) is stored in the ground, often in the pore spaces between soil par­ti­cles.

Soil can be thought of as a giant sponge that can absorb large amounts of water. Antecedent mois­ture con­di­tion is how wet or dry that soil stor­age sponge is when it starts to rain.

If the soil stor­age sponge is already sat­u­rat­ed before the storm hits, only a small per­cent­age of the rain­fall can be absorbed, mean­ing a large por­tion of the rain­fall total will become runoff. For exam­ple, pri­or to TS Irene in 2011 the antecedent mois­ture con­di­tion was rel­a­tive­ly high, as can be seen in the stream gage hydro­graph at Allaben (below). The orange tri­an­gles rep­re­sent the aver­age flow for that day (approx 20–30cfs). In the week lead­ing up to Irene, flow in the Eso­pus Creek was well above aver­age (blue line, 100–200 cfs), indi­cat­ing that soil mois­ture lev­els were already high when the storm hit.

Hydrograph of Esopus Creek at Allaben prior to TS Irene in 2011.

Hydro­graph of Eso­pus Creek at Allaben pri­or to TS Irene in 2011.

Con­verse­ly, if the soil stor­age sponge is most­ly dry when the storm hits a larg­er per­cent­age of the pre­cip­i­ta­tion can poten­tial­ly be absorbed, or stored in the soil sponge rather that becom­ing runoff.  Less runoff can some­times mean less dra­mat­ic flood­ing.

Today, as we await the arrival of Trop­i­cal Storm Isa­ias, antecedent mois­ture con­di­tions are rel­a­tive­ly low, with flow in the Eso­pus at Allaben hov­er­ing near the approx­i­mate aver­age val­ue for ear­ly August (20–30 cfs), far less than what it was pri­or to Irene. There is more room for water in the sponge.

Antecedent moisture conditions prior to the arrival of TS Isaias.

Antecedent mois­ture con­di­tions pri­or to the arrival of TS Isa­ias.

This does not mean that flood­ing can’t hap­pen when antecedent mois­ture con­di­tions are low. Even with a dry soil stor­age sponge, the rate of pre­cip­i­ta­tion is also an incred­i­bly impor­tant com­po­nent of flood dynam­ics. If rain falls faster than it can infil­trate into the soil, water will run off regard­less of antecedent mois­ture con­di­tions, which can cause dam­ag­ing flash floods.

The soil stor­age sponge also has a lim­it­ed capac­i­ty and can become sat­u­rat­ed quick­ly.

Please refer to our recent post on the Flash Flood Watch issued for the Ashokan Water­shed for infor­ma­tion on how to pre­pare for a flood.

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Flash Flood Watch in Effect for Ashokan Watershed

Posted on: August 4th, 2020 by Brent Gotsch
High flows on the Esopus Creek in September 2018.

High flows on the Eso­pus Creek in Sep­tem­ber 2018.

 

The Nation­al Weath­er Ser­vice has cur­rent­ly issued a flash flood watch for the Ashokan Water­shed and much of the rest of the region. Trop­i­cal Storm Isa­ias is cur­rent­ly track­ing up the east­ern seaboard and bring­ing heavy rains and dam­ag­ing winds in its path. While the region has been abnor­mal­ly dry this sum­mer and the rain itself is wel­come, the poten­tial inten­si­ty of the down­pours could cause local­ized flood­ing.

Our Water­shed is no stranger to floods but it is still a good idea to be pre­pared. Through­out the day today, mon­i­tor the Nation­al Ocean­ic and Atmos­pher­ic Admin­is­tra­tion’s (NOAA) weath­er radio and/or local weath­er sta­tions to get updat­ed infor­ma­tion about con­di­tions. You can also mon­i­tor local stream gages by going to the Unit­ed States Geo­log­i­cal Sur­vey (USGS) web­site. The Allaben and Cold­brook stream gages are two major gages on the Eso­pus Creek.

If pos­si­ble, please stay home. High winds could top­ple trees and pow­er lines mak­ing roads impas­si­ble. In addi­tion, flood waters across road­ways are par­tic­u­lar­ly dan­ger­ous and lead to a high num­ber of injuries and fatal­i­ties each year because water depths are often deceiv­ing. Remem­ber, it only takes one foot of mov­ing water to move most pas­sen­ger cars and six inch­es of mov­ing water to knock a per­son over. If you come across a flood­ed road­way always Turn Around Don’t Drown!

If your local­i­ty issues evac­u­a­tion orders please evac­u­ate to your near­est emer­gency shel­ter imme­di­ate­ly and fol­low all instruc­tions from local offi­cials and emer­gency respon­ders.

For more infor­ma­tion on flood pre­pared­ness and what to do in an emer­gency you can view the AWSMP Flood Emer­gency Pre­pared­ness Guide. Also be sure to check out resources from FEMA’s Ready.gov web­site and the NY Exten­sion Dis­as­ter Edu­ca­tion Net­work (NY EDEN) web­site.

 

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What is a Stream Feature Inventory (SFI)?

Posted on: July 7th, 2020 by Tim Koch

Hold on tight for a bit of reverse engi­neer­ing:

The Ashokan Water­shed Stream Man­age­ment Pro­gram (AWSMP) is a col­lab­o­ra­tion between Cor­nell Coop­er­a­tive Exten­sion of Ulster Coun­ty, the Ulster Coun­ty Soil & Water Con­ser­va­tion Dis­trict, and the New York City Depart­ment of Envi­ron­men­tal Pro­tec­tion.

All of the AWSM­P’s stream man­age­ment activ­i­ties are under­tak­en in coor­di­na­tion with a local Stake­hold­er Coun­cil. The Stake­hold­er Coun­cil uses rec­om­men­da­tions from Stream Man­age­ment Plans to guide their deci­sion mak­ing. Man­age­ment plans con­tain a com­pre­hen­sive review of stream char­ac­ter­is­tics, data, maps, and rec­om­mend­ed man­age­ment strate­gies.

The large amount of data and obser­va­tions required to write a man­age­ment plan for a stream come from a Stream Fea­ture Inven­to­ry (SFI). This is where the rub­ber meets the road, or, where the wad­ing boots meet the stream bed.

Dur­ing a SFI, AWSMP staff from the Ulster Coun­ty Soil & Water Con­ser­va­tion Dis­trict walk a stream from top to bot­tom, col­lect­ing data on erod­ing stream banks, log­jams, and infra­struc­ture. These data are then ana­lyzed and ulti­mate­ly used to write a stream man­age­ment plan.

Join AWSMP Stream Edu­ca­tor Tim Koch as he joins the assess­ment crew on a SFI of the Elk Bushkill Creek in the Town of Shan­dak­en. This SFI is part of a larg­er effort by AWSMP to assess mul­ti­ple head­wa­ter trib­u­taries of the Eso­pus Creek, includ­ing McKin­ley Hol­low Creek and Lit­tle Peck Hol­low Creek. These trib­u­taries may be con­tribut­ing exces­sive sed­i­ment loads to the upper Eso­pus  Creek in the Oliv­erea val­ley. Excess sed­i­ment sup­ply leads to aggra­da­tion, or sed­i­ment “fill­ing in” the stream, which can sub­se­quent­ly trig­ger bank ero­sion and raise flood ele­va­tions.  SFI’s of the Eso­pus Creek head­wa­ters may help to locate and pri­or­i­tize restora­tion project sites aimed at reduc­ing the sed­i­ment sup­ply reach­ing the val­ley.

Stay tuned in the com­ing months for a SFI report on the Eso­pus Creek Head­wa­ters and for a new stream man­age­ment plan for the Lit­tle Beaver Kill in the Town of Wood­stock.

 

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Mount Tremper Route 28 Bridge Replacement Project Takes Shape

Posted on: April 30th, 2020 by Brent Gotsch
Land clearing for the new Route 28 Bridge in Mount Tremper begins. Photo by A. Bennett.

Land clear­ing for the new Route 28 Bridge in Mount Trem­per begins. Pho­to by A. Ben­nett.

 

If you’ve been through Mount Trem­per recent­ly you may have noticed some major changes includ­ing a lot of land clear­ing and grad­ing. The rea­son for this is that the New York State Depart­ment of Trans­porta­tion (NYSDOT) is prepar­ing to replace the Route 28 Bridge across the Eso­pus Creek. The new bridge will be con­struct­ed just down­stream of the cur­rent bridge and will have a high­er and much longer span. This will allow more water to pass beneath it dur­ing a flood and help pre­vent a back­up of water from flood­ing the near­by area. Dur­ing Trop­i­cal Storm Irene in 2011, flood waters tem­porar­i­ly pre­vent­ed traf­fic from cross­ing the bridge as well as adja­cent State Route 212. Route 28 will also be slight­ly realigned to match the approach to the new bridge.

There will be even more changes in Mount Trem­per. Since 2011, sev­er­al prop­er­ties there have been acquired through fed­er­al, state, and city acqui­si­tion pro­grams. NYSDOT will be using por­tions of these bought-out prop­er­ties to realign and raise Route 212. In addi­tion, the exist­ing berm, which is no longer need­ed to help pro­tect homes, is being removed and the mate­r­i­al from it will be used to ele­vate the road. With­out the berm, flood­wa­ters will now be able to bet­ter access the flood­plain, and when cou­pled with the larg­er bridge, flood ele­va­tions dur­ing the 100-Year Flood are expect­ed to decrease by 6.8 feet at the bridge. Lat­er this year, the Mount Pleas­ant Bridge, which has been closed to traf­fic for decades, will be removed which will fur­ther reduce flood risk for the area. Dur­ing the con­struc­tion of all these projects, Mount Trem­per res­i­dents will be tem­porar­i­ly get­ting their mail from the Boiceville Post Office.

We’ll be cov­er­ing the progress of this project through­out the year so check back reg­u­lar­ly for more updates. Be sure to check out our Face­book, Twit­ter, and Insta­gram pages for more pho­tos.

Land is being cleared to prepare for the new Route 28 Bridge in Mount Tremper. Photo by A. Bennett.

Land is being cleared to pre­pare for the new Route 28 Bridge in Mount Trem­per. Pho­to by A. Ben­nett.

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HEC-RAS Workshop a Success!

Posted on: August 16th, 2019 by Tim Koch

The Ashokan Water­shed Stream Man­age­ment Pro­gram recent­ly host­ed a three-day work­shop on how to use HEC-RAS, a pow­er­ful com­put­er pro­gram used to mod­el flow in stream chan­nels. HEC-RAS is an acronym for the Hydro­log­ic Engi­neer­ing Cen­ter’s Riv­er Analy­sis Sys­tem. First released in 1995, its capa­bil­i­ties have grown sig­nif­i­cant­ly over time. HEC-RAS is now on its fifth ver­sion. It is often used to delin­eate the extent of the 1% annu­al chance flood­plain (aka, the 100-year flood­plain) among oth­er reg­u­la­to­ry, tech­ni­cal, and envi­ron­men­tal uses.

Workshop participants use digital models of the terrain to help model how rivers behave during flood events.

Work­shop par­tic­i­pants use dig­i­tal mod­els of the ter­rain to help mod­el how rivers behave dur­ing flood events.

This 3‑day work­shop focused on using HEC-RAS to aid in the assess­ment and design of bridges and cul­verts. Milone and MacB­room, Inc. (MMI) were con­tract­ed to con­duct the hands-on work­shop to an audi­ence of twen­ty peo­ple. Par­tic­i­pants includ­ed staff and man­agers from Coun­ty Depart­ments of Pub­lic Works and Town High­way Depart­ments with­in the West of Hud­son Water Sup­ply water­sheds. Oth­ers in atten­dance includ­ed flood haz­ard mit­i­ga­tion per­son­nel from NYC DEP, Stream Man­age­ment Pro­gram staff, DEC hydrol­o­gists, and folks from River­keep­er.

HEC-RAS requires site-spe­cif­ic input data to accu­rate­ly mod­el flows and floods. Thus, the work­shop had a field com­po­nent where peo­ple were taught where to place stream cross sec­tions in rela­tion to the bridge, how to con­duct peb­ble counts to deter­mine size dis­tri­b­u­tion of sed­i­ment par­ti­cles on the stream bed, and how to mea­sure spe­cif­ic com­po­nents of bridges and cul­verts required to build a HEC-RAS mod­el. Only local data were used, and the work­shop cen­tered around mod­el­ing exist­ing con­di­tions and pro­posed alter­na­tives for an under-sized bridge in the Ashokan Reser­voir water­shed.

Workshop participants investigate the Fox Hollow Road bridge over the Esopus Creek. Measurements taken on site were used to model different bridge replacement scenarios in order to increase community resilience during floods.

Work­shop par­tic­i­pants inves­ti­gate the Fox Hol­low Road bridge over the Eso­pus Creek. Mea­sure­ments tak­en on site were used to mod­el dif­fer­ent bridge replace­ment sce­nar­ios in order to increase com­mu­ni­ty resilience dur­ing floods.

It is impor­tant that bridges and cul­verts are sized prop­er­ly to pass flows that the struc­ture is like­ly to see over the course of its life. Under­sized bridges and cul­verts not only wors­en flood­ing, but also frag­ment aquat­ic ecosys­tems and can cre­ate insta­bil­i­ty in the stream chan­nel that can prop­a­gate sig­nif­i­cant dis­tances upstream and down­stream from the struc­ture and lead to oth­er dam­age.

This work­shop was aimed at empow­er­ing local engi­neers and high­way depart­ment staff to make informed deci­sions when man­ag­ing road-stream cross­ings (i.e., bridges and cul­verts.) Prop­er­ly sized cross­ings help to increase com­mu­ni­ty resilience to cli­mate change, improve aquat­ic habi­tat, and help to main­tain water qual­i­ty in the Eso­pus Creek and its trib­u­taries.

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Elevation and Floodproofing Workshop Advances Flood Mitigation

Posted on: April 12th, 2019 by Brent Gotsch
A workshop participant observes an engineered flood vent at the Elevation and Floodproofing Workshop held on March 26 and 27, 2019. Photo by Tim Koch.

A work­shop par­tic­i­pant observes an engi­neered flood vent at the Ele­va­tion and Flood­proof­ing Work­shop held on March 26 and 27, 2019. Pho­to by Tim Koch.

 

Poten­tial­ly thou­sands of struc­tures across the NYC West of Hud­son Water­shed are locat­ed with­in mapped FEMA flood­plains. Many are locat­ed in down­town ham­let areas and are vital to the local econ­o­my. More intense flood events and ris­ing flood insur­ance rates are threat­en­ing these struc­tures and the com­mu­ni­ties that rely on them for tax base, habi­ta­tion, eco­nom­ic activ­i­ty, and sense of place.

Prop­er­ty own­ers in flood zones are advised to reduce their flood risks and take action. A range of risk reduc­tion mea­sures are being test­ed and imple­ment­ed across the coun­try. The Ashokan Water­shed Stream Man­age­ment Pro­gram brought speak­ers with nation­al exper­tise to the region on March 26 and 27 to deliv­er a work­shop for local offi­cials to learn more about ele­va­tion and flood­proof­ing of struc­tures. The work­shop was held at the Emer­son Inn in Mount Trem­per and attend­ed by near­ly 50 build­ing depart­ment and oth­er offi­cials from Ulster, Greene, Sul­li­van, and Delaware coun­ties.

The work­shop fea­tured pre­sen­ters from Ducky John­son Home Ele­va­tions out of Hara­han, LA, and con­sul­tants recent­ly retired from the NYS Dept. of Envi­ron­men­tal Con­ser­va­tion and the U.S. Army Corps of Engi­neers.

“Every dol­lar spent on mit­i­ga­tion saves six dol­lars in recov­ery costs,” said Rod Scott of Ducky John­son. “Ele­va­tion and dry flood proof­ing are proven flood haz­ard mit­i­ga­tion tech­niques used to reduce flood risk and flood insur­ance pre­mi­ums,” he said.

In the 2018 hur­ri­cane sea­son alone, U.S. ter­ri­to­ries expe­ri­enced 15 storms and 8 hur­ri­canes respon­si­ble for $50 bil­lion in dam­age. In response to this “new nor­mal” of bil­lions in annu­al loss­es due to prop­er­ty dam­age, Con­gress has man­dat­ed flood insur­ance rate hikes for struc­tures with mort­gages in the FEMA flood­plain.

“Ele­vat­ing or flood­proof­ing struc­tures pro­vides a way for com­mu­ni­ties to keep their build­ing stock, and their tax base sta­ble while also decreas­ing flood insur­ance pre­mi­ums for the own­ers and less­en­ing their risk of flood-relat­ed dam­age,” said Brent Gotsch, Resource Edu­ca­tor for Cor­nell Coop­er­a­tive Exten­sion of Ulster Coun­ty and orga­niz­er of the work­shop. “With increas­ing pre­cip­i­ta­tion pat­terns and more dam­ag­ing flood events, it’s vital that com­mu­ni­ties con­sid­er using these meth­ods to adapt and become more resilient,” he added.

Elevation and Floodprooging Workshop participants view an elevated home in Mount Tremper, NY. Photo by Brent Gotsch

Ele­va­tion and Flood­proof­ing Work­shop par­tic­i­pants view an ele­vat­ed home in Mount Trem­per, NY. Pho­to by Brent Gotsch

 

Dur­ing the work­shop, local code offi­cials learned the dif­fer­ences between wet and dry flood­proof­ing and effec­tive ele­va­tion meth­ods for struc­tures. They learned how these prac­tices change flood insur­ance pre­mi­ums and how sim­ple mea­sures such as fill­ing-in a base­ment can reduce pre­mi­ums by hun­dreds or even thou­sands of dol­lars.

A bus tour showed par­tic­i­pants local exam­ples of struc­tures retro­fit­ted with ele­va­tion and flood­proof­ing mea­sures. At one prop­er­ty, water­tight shields were installed to pre­vent water from flow­ing into the liv­ing area. Anoth­er stop fea­tured a res­i­dence with engi­neered “smart vents” that allow water to safe­ly flow under­neath the structure’s first floor and equal­ize poten­tial­ly dan­ger­ous pres­sures that could buck­le the foun­da­tion.

At the end of the work­shop, local offi­cials left with increased knowl­edge about how to prop­er­ly retro­fit flood­prone struc­tures. Going for­ward, coun­ty part­ners plan to work with local munic­i­pal­i­ties to iden­ti­fy and access fund­ing for ele­va­tion and flood­proof­ing projects and min­i­mize costs to prop­er­ty own­ers.

Addi­tion­al pre­sen­ta­tions by the Catskill Water­shed Cor­po­ra­tion, the NYS Divi­sion of Home­land Secu­ri­ty and Emer­gency Ser­vices, and FEMA informed par­tic­i­pants about poten­tial fund­ing oppor­tu­ni­ties for ele­va­tion and flood­proof­ing projects. Pre­sen­ters walked through the appli­ca­tion process and gave advice on how to cre­ate a strong appli­ca­tion.

Fund­ing for the work­shop was pro­vid­ed by the New York City Depart­ment of Envi­ron­men­tal Pro­tec­tion.

A manager of a local bank branch shows Elevation and Floodproofing Workshop participants how they install the floodproofing barriers. Photo by Tim Koch.

The man­ag­er of a local bank branch shows Ele­va­tion and Flood­proof­ing Work­shop par­tic­i­pants how they install flood­proof­ing bar­ri­ers. Pho­to by Tim Koch.

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Olive Engineering Consultant Talks Flooding and Requests Resident Assistance

Posted on: July 15th, 2015 by Brent Gotsch

On July 14, the Town of Olive Flood Advi­so­ry Com­mit­tee (FAC) held a  meet­ing with town res­i­dents and Woidt Engi­neer­ing and Con­sult­ing to review ini­tial find­ings for the Local Flood Analy­sis (LFA)  in the ham­lets of Boiceville and West Shokan. George Fowler, an engi­neer with Woidt and the project lead for the LFAs, described what he and his team have dis­cov­ered. Woidt Engi­neer­ing and the Olive FAC will work togeth­er over the next few months to ana­lyze the pos­si­ble mit­i­ga­tion options for the ham­lets. Once these options are iden­ti­fied they will be run through the Ben­e­fit-Cost Analy­sis (BCA) process to deter­mine eli­gi­bil­i­ty for mul­ti­ple fund­ing sources. You can help with this process by fill­ing out a ques­tion­naire to report dam­ages to your home or busi­ness. This infor­ma­tion will used dur­ing the BCA process. The more infor­ma­tion we receive the bet­ter! It will be used to devel­op the most accu­rate results pos­si­ble. The form can be down­loaded here or picked up at the Olive Town Hall.

Not sur­pris­ing­ly, inun­da­tion of the busi­ness dis­trict in Boiceville is a major con­cern. George and his team showed how the high and tight val­ley wall forces the Eso­pus Creek to flood areas in that dis­trict dur­ing high flows. More analy­sis is need­ed but ini­tial find­ings show  there may be poten­tial to recon­nect the stream with its flood­plain just upstream of the Five Arch Bridge. Build­ing a flood­plain here may help keep water out of the busi­ness dis­trict or lessen the amount of water there. That project would like­ly require relo­cat­ing the fire depart­ment build­ing and oth­er struc­tures in order to make room for water stor­age.

In West Shokan, the major prob­lems are asso­ci­at­ed with debris jams and sed­i­ment buildup. One of the major con­cerns for res­i­dents and Town offi­cials is the grav­el bar just upstream of the Bushkill Bridge. The con­cern is that if the grav­el bar grows it could cause an obstruc­tion that dam­ages or destroys the Bridge, cut­ting res­i­dents off from emer­gency ser­vices. George explained that we are liv­ing with the lega­cy of his­tor­i­cal human man­age­ment of the stream, name­ly the defor­esta­tion of the land­scape that occurred in the 19th Cen­tu­ry that caused large puls­es of sed­i­ment to enter the stream cor­ri­dors, and more recent­ly dredg­ing and berming of mate­r­i­al on stream banks that cre­ates unsta­ble stream cor­ri­dors. As with Boiceville, more analy­sis is need­ed, but one idea to explore is restor­ing appro­pri­ate stream chan­nel dimen­sions to help move sed­i­ment and debris through that area with­out undue buildup.

 

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Olive Residents: Flooding Problems?

Posted on: April 16th, 2015 by Brent Gotsch

If you are a res­i­dent of the Town of Olive and want to either view or add to flood maps you are wel­come to stop by the AWSMP office between 8:00 am and 4:30 pm, Mon­day through Fri­day.  Recent­ly, the Town of Olive Town Board heard a pre­sen­ta­tion from Woidt Engi­neer­ing and Con­sult­ing on the Local Flood Analy­sis (LFA) process and how it will ben­e­fit the Town. Part of the pre­sen­ta­tion focused on Woidt’s desire to learn more from Olive res­i­dents about haz­ardous flood areas. Woidt cre­at­ed a set of maps where res­i­dents can mark  loca­tions of con­cern or known flood­ing and ero­sion haz­ards. Woidt will use the infor­ma­tion to exam­ine flood­ing solu­tions.  The maps are post­ed at the AWSMP office at 3130 State Route 28 in Shokan, NY (locat­ed between Ashokan Turf and Tim­ber and the Shokan Square plaza, across from the Cit­go gas sta­tion). The maps will be avail­able for approx­i­mate­ly three more weeks before they are returned to Woidt. For more infor­ma­tion on the LFA process in Olive please vis­it our office or view the Town of Olive web­site.

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Living by the Waterfront class offered March 21

Posted on: February 18th, 2015 by Brent Gotsch

Are you a prospec­tive home­own­er think­ing of buy­ing water­front prop­er­ty? Do you already own water­front prop­er­ty but are con­fused about flood insur­ance or how to lim­it flood dam­ages? If so, you should attend the class “Liv­ing by the Waterfront—Keeping Dry When the Waters Rise”  at Cor­nell Coop­er­a­tive Exten­sion of Ulster Coun­ty, 232 Plaza Road in Kingston, NY on March 21, 2015 from 9:00am to Noon. Cost to attend is $10 per per­son or $15 per cou­ple. Water­shed Edu­ca­tor Brent Gotsch will teach the class on what prospec­tive prop­er­ty own­ers should think about before pur­chas­ing water­front prop­er­ty. Reg­is­ter online by March 15. Con­tact Heather Eckardt at he54@cornell.edu or call 845–688-3047 for ques­tions about reg­is­tra­tion.

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